"THE CHUMAK WENT A-ROAMING"

       Hey, Our Chumaks Were Leaving Home
       Chumaks are setting out on a journey. They prepare harness on Monday, mend wagons on Tuesday, feed oxen on Wednes- day, water them on Thursday, take leave of their families on Friday, pray to God on Saturday, and set out on Sunday and reach the river-crossing.
       The Cossack Is Going Away
       A Cossack is leaving for the chumaks. His wife talks him into staying home. If you're such an exemplary wife, he says, keep at home, raise our children, honor your holy Sunday, fast on Fridays - and I'll have good luck. Hey, Good Fortune, you served me well when I was a poor man and a chumak; serve me in keeping house, too.
       It's Time We Reaped Our Wheat, Mother
       Mother, it's time your daughter was married off. A chumak was grazing oxen in the steppe and he made passes at me. He said, I won't forget you, sweetheart, and I'll send matchmakers to you as soon as I come back.

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        Mother, why didn't you wake me up when they were leaving? - You'd have cried. - Oh, Mother, I cant see the light of day for tears as it is...
       A Chumak Was Harnessing His Oxen
       A chumak harneseed his oxen and rode out the yard. Stay home, my wife; chop wood, make candles. Out rode the chumak and turned into the nearest tavern.
       A Black Cloud Is Coming
       It drizzles. The chumak is leaving. Stay at home, my wife, chop wood and heat the stove well. His wife goes to a neighbor to ask some salt. Neighbors dear, give me at least a pinch. Tell your daughters not to go with chuniaks at night. For a chumak has as much love for you as there is pond scum on the sea, as much faith as there's foam on the sea.
       Yonder Near The Green Grove
       A girl gathers flax and sings: My pretty face, who's going to kiss you? An officer, thief or young chumak? The chumak leaves home and his wife stays behind. She com- plains of her fate to her neighbors. Tell your daughters never to go with chumaks of a night. A chumak will have as much love for you as there's pond scum on the sea...

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        Gray Geese Fly Off To Feed At The Lake
       Gray geese fly off to a lake, chumaks stay in the steppe to pass the winter. Mother, why did you not wake me up when they were leaving the village? - For you not to pine away. - No, Mother, buy me a needle and some red silk; I'll embroider for the chumak I love.

ROAD ADVENTURES. CHUMAK FATE

       The Sun Is Rising High, O High
       The sun goes up and down. Chumaks drive across an endless steppe. Suddenly, robbers come out from the woods and demand the chumak leader. But he orders: My brave lads, take your sharp stakes and have no mercy! We'll go to Poltava and surprise them all: There were two scores of robbers, but the ten of us got the better of them.
       A Chumak Was Homing From The Don
       Homing from the Don, the chumak felt sad looking at his oxen. My dun oxen, who will owe you, who will tend you and feed you when I'm no more?
       O Brother Chumaks, You Are All My Brothers
       Brother chumaks grazed, watered and drove their oxen.

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        Only their leader's oxen stood in harness. When the train had moved on, they stopped at the foot of a hill, bellowed and fell dead (Note: Oxen some- times died from eating the wrong grass).
       A Chumak Was Strolling Down The Road And Singing A Song
       A chumak strolls down the road and sings a song. When he turns around, his oxen are gone. Sad and downcast, the chumaks head for Tangorod to look for their oxen and catch the thief.
       Why Have You Become Sad, Young Chumak?
       What makes you sad, chumak? - My parents died, and I'm unlucky myself. I'll go to the field to look for the Lady Luck. I haven't found the Lady Luck, I've found my mother's grave instead.
       A Chumak Was Returning From The Don
       Returning from the Don, a chumak sat down by the water and cursed his fate. My orphan's fate, you wicked, why aren't you like other people's fates?
       Hey-Ho, Whoever Knows Not Grief
       I grew up a hired hand, a captive who never had a streak of luck.

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        And I went to make money, driving other people's oxen. Pull me out of this bog, my oxen, and right to Nastia's tavern. I'll drink wine, sporting a blue coat for all to envy me. Love me, girls, this orphan is a rich chumak!
       Down By The River, Along the Shore
       A chumak walks down by the riverside with a knout and a bag in hand, in patched old clothes. - Stop and ask the road, chumak!- I know the road: across the steppe and after my good fortune. It fled from me, for I didn't prize it. Ah, into the tavern and may my grief perish!
       Oh, Cross-Flowered Periwinkle, Creep Not Up That Hill
       Creep not up that hill, periwinkle. Don't cheer at my misfortune, my enemies. Mis- fortunes are like morning dew: When the sun rises, it will fall on the ground. I had debts and they took away my wagons and oxen... Good grief, I'll go to the Crimea and bring back wagons of fish and salt if I'm alive!

ALLEGORIC SONGS

        Chumaks Were Coming From The Uk- raine
       Chumaks came from the Ukraine and made a fire. A nightingale's nest was burned, his young perished.

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        A cuckoo, his sister, says: You oughtn't have made your nest by the road. Next time make it high in a tree.
       Nobody Is Worse Off Than This Poor Gull
       Woe is her, the gull that raised her young by the steppe road. Chumaks went by and took her young away. Give me my children, she pleads. - We can't, we threw them into our gruel. Weave yourself an- other nest. - May it be as easy for you to die as for me to weave another nest.
       Oh, Chumaks Came Trooping From The Ukraine
       Chumaks come from the Ukraine and make a fire. A nightingale's nest gets burned. The nightingale calls for help but nobody comes to help him. - Save me, Sister Cuckoo! - I told you, brother: Don't make your nest by a road, make it in a field, in a high poplar.
       Oh, Woe Is That Gull Bird
       Woe is the gull that raised her young by the steppe road. Chumaks went by, playing a fiddle, and took her young away. Give me my children, she begs the chumaks. - We threw them into our gruel, the gruel was tasty.

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        Oh, Woe Is That Gull, The Bereft Mother
       Woe is the gull - chumaks went by and took her children away. Give me back my children, she pleads. I will serve you, tend your oxen. - We cooked your young in our gruel. - May you never see the Crimea, may your oxen fall sick, may you never meet good fortune!
       Chumaks Were Coming From The Ukraine
       (contents as in the first song in this group)
       Chumaks Were Homing From The Crimea
       (contents as in Chumaks Were Coining From The Ukraine)

SICKNESS. DEATH. HARD WINTER ON THE STEPPE

        A Chumak Went To Market In The Crimea
       A chumak takes sick on the way to the Crimea. A friend comes up, pities him. - My friend, don't pity me, better sell my brace of oxen and bury me. And give another to my wife so she'll remember me.

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        There's A Well In The Field
       A chumak grazes his oxen and waters them by a well. But they won't drink. The chumak takes sick and dies. A red guelder- rose bush is planted on his grave. Give me your hand! asks his mother. - I'd give you both, Mother, but earth won't let me.
       Oh, The Chumak Took Sick, The Poor Beggar A chumak takes sick in a strange land. Only his friend is with him. Dear friend, sell my oxen and bury me; sell my wagons and remember me.
       Oh, Oxen Lowed In Their Painted Harness
       A chumak's oxen lowed as their master died on the way from the Crimea. Friends buried him. Neither his parents nor his wife would know of that place... The oxen lowed and lowed, tears streaming from their eyes: Our master and friend is no more.
       Oh, A Chumak Went A-Traveling
       A chumak traveled in the Don lands seven years. Never a bad adventure, and suddenly he took sick. - My oxen, who will drive you now? - The oxen bellowed, wagons screeched. Bells pealed in Rostov as he was buried, and twice as many pealed in Kiev for the chumak who had not returned from the Don.

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        Oh, A Chumak Traveled In The Don Lands Seven Years
       A chumak had plied his trade unevent- fully for seven years, when suddenly he took sick and died. Church bells rang and oxen lowed as he was laid in his grave amid the moonlit steppe.
       Chumaks Roamed Around Three Years
       Chumaks roamed around for three years on end, never without good fortune. But one day one of them took sick. My friend, take my money, but save me! If the money's not enough, take my oxen as well! But the oxen came home through forest and hill: Our master died in a strange land.
       Oh Chumak, Hey Chumak
       Chumak, why are you late from the Crimea and one of your gang is missing? - My friend got killed when we were loading our wagons and the counterweight tore off its hook. We cooked some fish and re- membered him. The fish was good, and he was a fine lad, too.
       A Farmer Was Making Hay In His Hay- field
       A chumak sneers as a farmer makes hay.

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        Come winter, the chumak goes to buy hay for his oxen. No boy, says the farmer, you laughed too much. The chumak sits in his wagon, holding his heart. Brothers, make a coffin for me and bury me in a deep grave. Just bow to my parents and my girl for me.
       Mowers Were Mowing Grass For Hay
       A chumak pokes fun at farmers as they make hay. Don't laugh, there will be no feed for your oxen soon. A severe winter sets in, and the chumak goes to buy some hay. Sell me at least a bundle, good man, or at least some straw, if you please.
       Mowers Were Mowing Grass For Hay
       A chumak pokes fun at farmers as they make hay. Don't laugh, you'll be in trouble when winter comes. In winter, the chumak wants to buy some hay. Sell me some hay or at least straw, good man, or I won't make it home. My crescent-horned oxen, who will be your master? - Whoever feeds them well, you fool.
       Oh, An Owl Sits On A Mound In The Steppe
       An owl sits on a mound and hoots, "Poohoo!" Hurry up, you chumaks, you'll spend the winter in the lower reaches of the Dnieper. One of the chumaks lies dying.

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        Make him a coffin, lads, and bury him. And when you're back, bow to his parents and bride.
       Shoo, An Owl Comes Flying Above The Wagons
       An owl sits on a mound and hoots, "Poohoo!" Hurry up, you chumaks, you'll spend the winter in the lower reaches of the Dnieper. - We would love to hurry, but one of us is dying. - So make him a coffin, dig him a grave between two roads, and bury him.

HOMECOMING. LOVE

        My Arms Ache, And My Feet Ache, Too
       I've been waiting for my beloved so long. But what is that? What's this noise coming from beyond the hill? Wagons creaking, oxen lowing, harness rattling. A chumak walks in front of them, playing a flute.
       Oh, From Behind The Hill, A Steep Hill
       Wagons rattle out from behind the hill. A chumak walks up front, driving the oxen. Hey lass, come buy my salt. - Better you come help me mow this grass. - Eh, this isn't my business. - Then help me reap this wheat. - Not my business, either.

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        And Wagons Were Rattling, And Har- ness Was Clanging Wagons rattle, harness clangs, oxen chew cud. The driver plays his flute, walking up front. His flute is made of periwinkle, its whistle of hazelwood. When the chumak plays a tune, the girl's heart aches.
       A Chumak Walks Through The Valley
       A chumak walks through the valley. A fir has broad needles, an oak's leaves are broader still. A pigeon has caught a dove. Even though you're not mine, come kiss me. - Why kiss another's love and hurt your own?
       A Chumak Was Homing From The Crimea
       A chumak fell to thought on the way from the Crimea. Hey, what are you thin- king of? - I'm not lucky, you know. Even a fish in the sea has a mate. Not so with me. I could only love the one with sloe eyes and black brows.
       Woe Is Me In This Strange Land
       Woe is me in this strange land. I have no family. There are three girls, though: with dark, fair, and red hair. I love the dark one and propose to the fair one; as for the red one, I'll say goodbye to her. Didn't

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        I tell you not to go to the Crimea, or my father will marry me off? - I loved you a girl, now I'll wait for you to be a widow. Every garden doesn't bloom; every pair of lovers doesn't get married.
       We Plowed And Sowed, And No One To Take In The Harvest
       Ghumaks went carousing in Mirhorod. A girl came out to buy some salt. Chumak, help me mow this grass.-- Eh no, this isn't my business. - Then help me with the wheat. - Not my work, either.
       Dark, O Dark Is The Night
       Nights are long in fall. Who will I spend the night with? I'll sup alone, for my be- loved left for the Crimea. Salt is as heavy as my life.
       Up And Down The Hill
       Three girls loved that chumak: one gave him gifts, the other made his bed, and the third one poisoned him. The chumak took sick on the road, died and was buried amid a bare field. The girl died of sorrow, too. Now her father and mother pine away for her, and a black raven croaks over the chumak.
       Whose Are Those Gray Oxen?
       Three girls loved a chumak.

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        One loved him and spoke the truth, the second one gave him a wedding ring, and the third one put a spell on him. Charm his hands, feet and dark eyes, lest he go to your rivals at night.
       The Chumak Went On A Drunk A hapless chumak went to search for a better fate, fell into the sea and drowned. His mother asks fishermen: Cast your nets, take him out even if he's dead! The fisher- men take him out. His mother stands crying on the shore. Take this gold piece, good people, bury my son.
       The Chumak Sat Down, Hey, The Chu- mak Sat Down
       An unlucky chumak went to look for a better fortune, fell into the sea and drown- ed. Take this black horse, his mother begs fishermen, take a pair of dun oxen and a gold-sown saddle, just bring my son back dead or alive!
       A Chumak Went Rambling
       A chumak strolls about town, casting glances at other men's wives. Other women are like flowers, and mine is but a burden to me. I'll take her by the hand and throw her into the river. Good evening, I'll say to her father, I've drowned my loveless wife in the churning river.

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        At A Market In Kiev
       Chumaks were having a merry time in Kiev. One took a liking to the mistress of a tavern. Give me your daughter in marri- age! They were betrothed on Saturday and married on Sunday. After a time, they asked each other about their parents. Tell me, my love, who was your father? - His name was Karpo. - So was my father's,- And we have the same family name. May these priests never see any good in this life: they married a brother and sister! Come, sister, we'll sow ourselves over the fields and turn into flowers and grasses. People will mow grass and ask God to forgive us our sin.

JOKES. BANTER

        What An Unfortunate Chumak
       What an unfortunate chumak! He is barely dragging his feet He stops at an inn for the night. The mistress wines him on credit, then takes a hundred roubles and his oxen to boot. Well, what of it - I had a good time with her, he consoles himself.
       A Chumak Feels Sad, Not Having A Penny
       A chumak left all the money he'd made in Poltava and Warsaw in some wretched tavern.

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        He drank wine, beer and cordial and ordered music... and landed in the police, into the bargain.
       A Black Cloud Is Coming
       It's clouding over and starting to rain. The chumak stops for the night at the nearest inn. The mistress wines and dines him on credit, then bills him a thousand and adds another for good measure. What a fool you are, chumak, to have lost all you had, even your axle-grease bucket, because of a woman's charms.
       What Makes You So Sad, Chumak?
       Why are you downcast, chumak? - My mistress Nastia died. And the priest cheated me out of my money, the rascal.
       A Chumak Was Carousing At A Market
       A chumak squandered all his money and his oxen on drink. Next morning he came to the innkeeper, but she laughed him off. I wish I could go home, but my fellow villagers would ridicule and blame me for my foolishness. Better to go to Moldavia. I'll have a hard time for seven years or so, but I'll raise enough money to buy a pair of oxen and make rich again.
       At A Market In Kiev
       (contents as in the preceding song)

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        Oh, Chumak, You ve Done Your Chumak- ing
       A chumak got broke, sold his pants, too. But the girl who loved him sold her skirts to buy him a pipe. She sold her combs to buy him a tinder-box, and her corset to buy him a tobacco pouch. If I had a wife like her, I'd be a faithful husband!

DANCING SONGS

        Look, Mother, A Chumak Is Coming
       Mother, a chumak is coming. Let's invite him. We'll give him grain and buy his fish. Look, Mother, another is coming. Let's in- vite him: there'll be salt in the house. Oh7 my daughter, you're beautiful but too young. Too young to marry.
       O My Mother, My Mother
       You are my mother, and I'm your daughter. Why didn't you teach me when I was small? Now I'm a grown girl and I want a husband - not someone who's old and small, but a young chumak.
       Bare You Are, Chumak, As Bare Can Be
       Bare you are, chumak, not a shirt on your back. To marry me! I'm not in a hurry: my face is young and smooth yet.

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There may be wrinkles on my face, says an older woman, but my husband loves me; but if a girl wilts and withers, there'll be no one to tell her she's still pretty.
       I Sowed Turnips And Lo! Beans Are A-Sprouting
       No cheer in being a chumak's wife: he travels in the steppe in spring and in summer, and me all alone. I'll invite a student over, they're a merry lot.
       The student comes to dinner and the husband arrives, too. Now stand together, says the husband, I'll marry you with this pole! The student vows never ever to love other men's wives as he flees in his bare feet.
       He Drank His Oxen And Wagons Away
       A chumak has wasted all he had on drink - all for dash's sake. Girls lose their heads looking at this handsome Cossack as he hops into the saddle. But then he meets a dark-browed beauty and himself loses his head. What to do - go drown myself or ask her hand in marriage?
       A Chumak's Wife Has A Good Time While He's Away A chumak's wife has a good time while he is away. All right, my dark-browed one, make merry while I'm alive.

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       When I die, your joys will be over, too.
       A Tar-Carter Was Tarring His Wagon
       A tar-carter went on a journey. The deacon came to his wife in the evening, but the chumak suddenly returned. The deacon ran through back gardens and fell over fences as the chumak drove him with a flail. The deacon ran home and fell onto his bed. Now he will know how to eat other people's pies.
       What Will I Do, The Poor Fool
       What will I do, poor fool that I am? I never sowed any rye or wheat because of these women. Now I sowed a patch of buckwheat, but a gale ruined it, too. Neither buckwheat nor a wife for me now...

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